“A total of 23 subjects (17 novices and 6 experts) were recruited to participate in the study. The results from the task completion time and path length support construct validity for the simulator in terms of distinguishing between novices and experts and achieving the goal of helping novices improve through relevant practice.”

McCracken et al, “Development of a physical shoulder simulator for the training of basic arthroscopic skills”, Int J Med Robotics Comput Assist Surg., 2017

“We compared an experienced group of arthroscopic shoulder surgeons (Arthroscopy Association of North America faculty) (n=12) with a novice group (n=7) (postgraduate year 4 or 5 orthopaedic residents). The tool comprised by validated ABR metrics coupled with a dry shoulder model simulator is able to accurately distinguish between the performance of experienced and novice orthopaedic surgeons.”

Angelo et al., “The Bankart Performance Metrics Combined With a Shoulder Model Simulator Create a Precise and Accurate Training Tool for Measuring Surgeon Skill”, Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery, 2015.

“Evaluating performance in the operating room is difficult,16 and most ef- forts have focused on techniques that standard- ize the assessment process outside the operating room. One such method is the Objective Struc- tured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS),17,18 in which candidates perform a series of standard- ized surgical tasks on inanimate models under the direct observation of an expert. Examiners score candidates using two methods. The first is a task- specific checklist consisting of 10 to 30 specific surgical maneuvers that have been deemed essen- tial elements of the procedure. The second is a global rating form, which includes five to eight surgical behaviors, such as respect for tissues, economy of motion, and appropriate use of assis- tants. The validity and reliability of the OSATS are similar to those of the more traditional Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and are acceptable for summative high-stakes evaluation purposes.19-21 To date, we have created more than 40 OSATS stations; some examples are shown in Figure 1. Other methods of assessment include the Mc-Gill Inanimate System for Training and Evalua- tion of Laparoscopic Skills (MISTELS)22 and the Imperial College Surgical Assessment Device (ICSAD).23,24 Developed at McGill University in Montreal, the MISTELS uses an inanimate box to simulate the generic skills needed in the perfor- mance of laparoscopic surgery. It has been shown to be a valid and reliable instrument for assess- ing laparoscopic skills.22 The ICSAD, developed at Imperial College in London, tracks hand motion using sensors placed on the trainee’s hands during the performance of a task. The sensors translate movement into a computerized tracing of hand motion, which provides an effective index of tech- nical skill in both laparoscopic23 and open24,25 procedures. This index has been shown to have good concordance with OSATS scores.”